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Exercise is an indispensable part of a healthy life. It is important for people who do sports to have adequate and balanced nutrition that will provide a daily balance of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and therefore vitamins, minerals, and water. In particular, planning and timing of meals are important.

Nutrition before exercise

The energy needed before exercise must be met. Starting sports with low blood sugar after prolonged fasting negatively affects performance during exercise. The main meal should be consumed usually 2-3 hours before starting the exercise. This meal; it should contain enough fluids, low fat, and low fiber (to facilitate gastric emptying and reduce digestive problems), high carbohydrates, and moderate protein. Low-glycemic index foods (such as whole grains) should be preferred as the type of carbohydrate that mixes slowly into the blood and keeps the blood sugar high for a long time. Blood sugar can be balanced with a snack that is not difficult to digest 1-1.5 hours before exercise.

Nutrition after exercise

Since the glycogen stores in the muscles can empty after 1.5-2 hours of exercise, and to replenish these stores, high carbohydrate foods should be consumed as soon as possible (within the first 2 hours) (complex carbohydrates). In addition, protein intake is important for the structure of muscle tissues. Adequate carbohydrate consumption is important for recovery (regeneration) immediately after exercise.

The time of carbohydrate consumed after exercise affects the rate of glycogen synthesis. Carbohydrate consumption (1-1.5 g / kg / in the first 2 hours) immediately after exercise provides higher glycogen storage than consumption after 2 hours.

Fluid Intake

Water constitutes 55-70% of body weight. Maintaining fluid balance during exercise is essential to exercise performance. Even mild dehydration (fluid loss in the body) negatively affects performance. Recommendations Regarding Fluid Consumption:

· We shouldn't expect to be thirsty for fluid consumption.

· Consumption of 400-600 ml of fluid 2-3 hours before exercise not only ensures the balance of fluid before exercise but also gives the necessary time for the excretion of excess fluid in the urine.

· Especially in hot and humid weather, liquid consumption should be increased.

· 150-300 ml of fluid is consumed at 15-20 minutes intervals at the beginning and after the exercise and the fluid balance in the body is maintained.

Exercise and Weight Loss

When we do sports such as cycling, swimming, running, our body first starts using carbohydrates. As time increases, it starts to burn fat. In order to achieve weight loss with exercise;

· Your dietary fat intake should be reduced. Milk and dairy products, lean meat, fish, and chicken may be preferred.

· Whole grains and legume consumption should be increased.

· Vegetables and fruits should be consumed every day.

· Daily fluid consumption should be increased.

· Meal should not be skipped.

· The time that will not affect your performance should be determined while exercising.

Exercise and muscle increase

Nutrition is as important as exercise to increase muscle tissue. If food consumption is increased and exercise is not done, adipose tissue increases. In order to stimulate the development of muscle cells, intensive muscle work, such as strength training, is performed and additional energy is consumed in the diet. It is known that the most important factor to increase muscle strength is training. Strength only increases after gradually increasing weight training. The type and intensity of the weight training performed determines the strength increase.

It is common to think that the use of amino acid and protein supplements will be useful to increase muscle density and strength. However, although the protein is in the muscle structure, the majority of the muscles are composed of water and 20-22% of them are protein. In addition to protein, carbohydrates and various vitamins are needed for muscle strength and development. If energy is taken insufficiently, proteins are used to provide energy instead of muscle building and repair. Adequate and balanced nutrition is required to increase muscle development, endurance, and strength. When a sufficient and balanced diet is provided, muscle development will be provided and additional products may not be required. There is no scientific data on the need for excess protein consumption for muscle development and strength. Therefore, you should not exceed the amount of protein suitable for you. Because excess protein is stored as fat in the body.

Briefly, the diet that provides an increase in muscle tissue; should be rich in protein and complex carbohydrates.

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