Updated: Sep 15, 2020
They take part in different mechanisms to continue vital activities. Apart from their coenzyme and cofactor functions, they play a role in the formation of various cells and tissues. B vitamins and vitamin C are water-soluble, while vitamins A, D, E and K are fat-soluble.
VITAMINS AND FEATURES
Vitamins dissolved in water can be excreted in the urine. Fat-soluble vitamins have the ability to be stored in the body. Most of the vitamins cannot be produced by our body and they must be taken on a diet. Vitamin D is produced only in our skin thanks to the sun's rays and vitamin K in our large intestine thanks to beneficial bacteria. Although the body can produce on its own, these vitamins need to be taken with nutrients as they may be inadequate.
Vitamin A belongs to the group of fat-soluble vitamins. It is also called retinol. It plays a very important role especially in the study of the mechanism of vision. Daily vitamin A requirement varies according to age, gender and special conditions. Since vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin, it is stored in adipose tissue, so it can be toxic. Visual deficiencies can be seen in vitamin A deficiency. Foods that are the best source of vitamin A; liver, fish oil and carrot.
Vitamin B1 is one of the water-soluble B vitamins, also called thiamine. It plays an important role in energy metabolism, so it is also a necessary vitamin for growth and development. Daily vitamin B1 requirement varies depending on age, gender and special conditions. Since vitamin B1 is a water-soluble vitamin, it is excreted in the urine when excessive intake occurs. Individuals with severe vitamin B1 deficiency have a syndrome called Beriberi that causes nephropathy. Foods that are the best source of vitamin B1; whole grains are meat and fish.
Vitamin B2 is one of the water-soluble B vitamins, also called riboflavin. It constitutes the content of two major coenzymes that are very important for the body. These coenzymes are; It takes place in growth, development and cellular functions. Daily vitamin B2 requirement varies depending on age, gender and special conditions. Vitamin B2 does not have any toxic effects since it can be dissolved in water and excreted in the urine and absorption from the gastrointestinal tract is low. Endocrinological problems such as impaired thyroid function may be encountered in vitamin B2 deficiency. Wounds on the rim are also a sign of vitamin B2 deficiency. Eggs, liver, milk and lean red meat are good sources of B2.
Vitamin B3, also known as niacin, is included in the water-soluble B group vitamins. Vitamin B3 helps convert carbohydrates into glucose for energy use. It also plays a role in the regulation of sex and stress hormones. Severe vitamin B3 deficiency; cracked scaly skin appearance causes Pellegra's disease, which has symptoms such as diarrhea and dementia. Foods considered the best vitamin B3; root vegetables, beer yeast, beef liver, salmon. Daily vitamin B3 requirement varies depending on age, gender and special conditions. Since vitamin B3 is a water-soluble vitamin, it is excreted in the urine when excessive intake occurs. But long-term vitamin B3 supplements are known to have some side effects.
VITAMIN B4 (KOLIN)
Choline, also called vitamin B4, belongs to the group of B vitamins. It plays a role in very important mechanisms, including preventing excess fat accumulation in the liver. Diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit, cirrhosis may develop in choline deficiency. Beef liver, eggs and cauliflower are good sources of choline. Daily vitamin B4 requirement varies depending on age, gender and special conditions. Unless taken at very high doses, choline has no toxic effect.
B5, another water-soluble vitamin called pantothenic acid, belongs to the other group of B vitamins. It plays an important role in the production of blood cells and obtaining energy from foods. Insufficient intake of vitamin B5 can cause headaches, fatigue and impaired muscle coordination. Broccoli, white and sweet potatoes, whole grain products are good sources of vitamin B5. Daily vitamin B5 requirement varies depending on age, gender and special conditions.
Vitamin B6 is found naturally in many foods and is water soluble. It is also known as pyridoxine. It acts as a coenzyme for approximately 100 different enzymes involved in protein metabolism. Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with depression and a weakened immune system. When taken in high doses, the body is associated with a neuropathy that causes loss of muscle control. For this reason, in addition to the vitamin B6 requirement levels, there is a list of upper limit limits that can be taken. Foods rich in vitamin B6; fish, liver, offal, potato.
B7 VITAMIN (BIOTINE)
Vitamin B7, better known as biotin, is also called vitamin H. It is water soluble and is included in the other group of B vitamins. It has positive effects especially on hair and skin health. Daily biotin requirement varies depending on age. Liver, egg yolk, almond, peanut and soy are good sources of biotin. Occasionally, high doses of supplements can cause nausea and diarrhea.
B9 VITAMIN (FOLAT)
It is a water-soluble vitamin, also called folic acid. While folate is the name given to its naturally occurring form in foods, folic acid is the form obtained in a laboratory setting. Folate is involved in important mechanisms such as DNA replication, RNA synthesis and amino acid conversions. In folate deficiency, Neural Tube Defect, which is a congenital anomaly, can cause problems such as growth and development retardation and megaloblastic anemia. It is recommended that any woman of childbearing age who has the possibility of pregnancy start folic acid supplements. Daily folic acid / folate requirement varies according to gender, age and special conditions. Liver, enriched foods, lentils, chickpeas can be listed as folate-rich foods. Since consumption of processed foods increases, if consumption of enriched foods is not enough, folic acid deficiency can be encountered. Folic acid intake above a certain dose is not recommended.
Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is water soluble. This vitamin contributes to healthy nerve and blood cells. Beef liver, oysters and red meat are the best sources of vitamin B12. Loss of appetite, fatigue and megaloblastic anemia can be seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. Forgetfulness is one of the most obvious symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency. Since it is a water-soluble and excreted vitamin, it has not been found to have any toxic effect. It is important for vegetarian and vegan individuals to monitor B12 levels regularly.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin. It plays a big role especially in collagen production. It is also a powerful antioxidant. In vitamin C deficiency, scurvy occurs with weakening of the connective tissue. The amount of vitamin C to be taken daily varies according to age, gender and special circumstances. Individuals who are smokers and passive smokers need to take more vitamin C. Almost all fruits and vegetables, especially citrus, pepper, strawberry and kiwi, are good sources of vitamin C. Intake of high doses of vitamin C may cause gastrointestinal disturbances due to the osmotic effect of the non-absorbable parts.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that has two different forms, cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol. Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus. So it plays a very important role in bone health. While vitamin D deficiency in childhood causes a bone disease called Rikets, osteomalacia can be seen due to the softening of bones due to vitamin D deficiency in adulthood. Amounts of vitamin D to be taken daily vary depending on age, gender and special conditions. Our skin can produce its own vitamin D at the right angle when the sun gets sun at certain times of the day. Vitamin D supplements should be applied under the supervision of a doctor.
Vitamin E is a type of fat-soluble vitamin that is naturally found in foods, also called alpha tocopherol. This vitamin has strong antioxidant properties. The recommended daily intake varies depending on age, gender and special circumstances. Oil seeds and vegetables are good sources of vitamin E. Vitamin E is also available on the market as a supplement. In its deficiency, problems with nerve conduction, weakness of muscles and retinal damage that can cause blindness can be seen. High doses of vitamin E can cause unexpected bleeding as it will negatively affect the blood clotting process.
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin with different forms that can be both taken from food and produced by the large intestine. It takes part in blood clotting. Depending on age, gender and different situations, the amounts recommended for daily use vary. Bleeding may occur due to problems in blood clotting in vitamin K deficiency. Green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils and some fruits are good sources of vitamin K.