NUTRITION IN CHILDREN ATHLETES



For centuries, athletes have tried different methods of diet to improve their physical activity and performance. In ancient times, different breeds made an effort to be successful with different feeding methods. Some ate only meat, some ate meat, ate bread, and drank wine. Sports nutrition has been the subject of many studies since then.

Nutrition is one of the leading environmental factors affecting human health. In the success of the athlete;

· Genetic predisposition

· Regular training

· Motivation

· Choosing the most suitable diet for sports is a criterion.

It is difficult to determine the energy requirement of child athletes. However, the energy requirement can be determined by taking into account values ​​such as age, gender, intensity and intensity of exercise, environmental conditions, personal differences, and basal metabolism. The effect of the basal metabolic rate of the child on child athletes and the level of physical activity in active athletes increases the daily calorie need of the athlete.

Nutritional elements in child sports nutrition;



CARBOHYDRATES(CHO); CHO ratio in energy consumed daily in child athletes; Although it varies depending on the type and intensity of exercise, it is around 50-55%. Carbohydrates are the source of energy. Glycogen stored in the muscles is supplied from carbohydrates. Child athletes who do not consume foods containing carbohydrates may be tired, weak, and have muscle pain, as a result, the athlete will not be successful.

In sports that require endurance; Food rich in CHO is recommended to athletes before, during, and after exercise. Before exercise; Products with low, medium, and high glycemic index are recommended during and after exercise.


Carbohydrate sources;

Simple CHO (Simple candies); Jam, honey, marmalade, tea sugar, fruits, dried fruits, juices

Complex CHO; Bread, pasta, rice, cake, noodles, breakfast cereals, legumes, potatoes

Simple and Complex CHO mix; Cake, cookies, biscuits, milk puddings, pastries (sweet-savory), banana

PROTEINS; Proteins are essential and beneficial nutrients for our bodies. The ratio of proteins in daily energy should be 10-15%. It is essential for growing children to consume protein sources. The issue to be considered here; The issue is that more protein than the daily requirement will not cause muscle growth. Excess protein is stored in adipose tissue only as fat in the body. Therefore, the usefulness of taking protein-amino acid supplements in addition to nutrition is open to discussion.

FATS; Fats have various functions for our bodies. Fats; In terms of the usefulness of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids in the body; should be included in the diet of athletes. Fats should be at the level of 20-30% of the total energy. There are findings that oil consumption can be increased to 35% in cases where the energy requirement is too high. Studies on MCT (medium-chain fatty acids) suggest that it delays emptying in glycogen stores and prolongs fatigue time.


VITAMIN-MINERALS; They are essential items for all athletes. Athletes should consume higher amounts of vitamins and minerals compared to sedentary individuals. Particular attention should be paid to the consumption of some vitamins and minerals (B, A, C, vitamin E, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium) for endurance athletes. In addition, vitamins-minerals are rich in antioxidants compounds; It is protective against diseases in children who exercise for a long time.

Female adolescent athletes, gymnasts, and dancers have an iron deficiency. Because of the sport they do, these athletes need weight control. Energy restriction may prevent adequate iron intake and they experience an iron loss with hemolysis during training. Foods rich in iron should be added to the diet of these athletes.


LIQUID RECEPTION; Water is one of the most important nutrients for the human body. Of water; regulation of metabolic events in the body; body balance; work of organs; It has functions such as regulating body temperature, carrying electrolytes, lubricating joints.

That; is taken both with foods and beverages. 0.5 liters of water are released as a result of metabolic events in the body. We lose about 2 liters of water as a result of sweating, breathing, urine-defecation during the day. It is very important to replace this lost water. Fluid losses in the body may start with fatigue and go up to death.



NUTRITION BEFORE EXERCISE;

The athlete should have the main meal approximately 3-4 hours before the exercise/competition. This 3-4 hour period is necessary for the digestion of food. Snacks should be made 1-2 hours before the competition. Foods with a low glycemic index should be preferred and should be fed with 1-2 g of CHO per kg.


DURING EXERCISE;

first target; It is a nutritional model that contains carbohydrates (30-60 g / hour) to maintain blood glucose continuity and helps to meet fluid loss. Every 10-15 minutes, 200-250 ml of a drink containing 6-8% CHO should be consumed. Adding protein (CHO / PRO = 3-4 / 1) to the beverage improves endurance performance and increases glycogen resynthesis. Many studies have determined that carbohydrate drinks with added protein both increase endurance and delay fatigue time.

AFTER EXERCISE;

To replenish glycogen stores, 1-1.5 g / kg of CHO carbohydrate should be consumed as soon as possible (within 15-30 minutes) and repeated every 2 hours for 6 hours.


Therefore, child athletes need to drink 8-10 glasses of water a day.

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