What is gestational diabetes?
Diabetes Mellitus is a carbohydrate metabolism disorder that develops in the human body. In this metabolic disorder, blood sugar is well above the required value and the insulin mechanism does not work well. Therefore, many side effects can be seen in this metabolism disorder. If the carbohydrate metabolism disorder started for the first time in pregnancy, if it is in a healthy condition before, this diabetes is called Gestational Diabetes (GDM), that is, pregnancy diabetes.
How Gestational Diabetes Occurs and Risk Factors
Generally, blood sugar drops to normal levels after birth, but this disorder can be permanent if not observed. Therefore, attention should be paid to both nutrition and exercise and regular living conditions during pregnancy.
Most hormones secreted during pregnancy causes high blood sugar levels. For example, steroid hormones secreted from the placenta increase blood sugar against the insulin hormone that is responsible for lowering blood sugar.
Especially in the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy, especially in patients with diabetes susceptibility, blood sugar begins to increase. In the case of high blood sugar in pregnant women, therefore, the baby in the womb increases blood sugar and the baby becomes larger and the macrosomic fetus situation occurs under the effect of the reactive secreted insulin hormone.
What are the risk factors in gestational diabetes?
Individuals with high risk have conditions such as:
· Presence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in previous pregnancies
· Impaired glucose tolerance before pregnancy
· Presence of obesity
· Family first-degree soon Type 2 DM history
· History of macrosomia in previous pregnancies
· Excessive weight gain in previous pregnancies (20 and more)
· Fasting blood sugar above 95 mg/dl
· Presence of glycosuria
· Pregnancy; over the age of 35
· Unknown cause of infant deaths
Who should be diagnosed with GDM and Screening?
These screenings should be made to individuals who are in the high-risk groups for gestational diabetes. For the diagnosis, if a pregnant woman has a risk factor, it should be done at the beginning of pregnancy, while in pregnant women without a risk factor, the pregnancy is 24-28. must be done in weeks. The test must be done after 8 hours of fasting. 75 g OGTT should be done. This test is called the oral glucose tolerance test and according to the results;
75 g OGTT values for the diagnosis of GDM:
Fasting - 92 mg/dl and above
Satiety 1st Hour - 180 mg/dl and above
Satiety 2nd Hour -153 mg/dl and above
If any of these values are positive, it means that diabetes is present in the pregnant woman.
Nutrition in gestational diabetes
All foods consumed during the day play a role in the change of blood sugar, for this balanced and adequate nutrition plays an important role in the treatment of diabetes.
In order not to be affected by the negative results of high blood sugar;
· Firstly, attention should be paid to the daily diet.
· During the day, frequent feeding should be provided and 3 main meals and 3 snacks should be observed.
· A healthy diet should be initiated so that individuals who are overweight should have normal body weight.
· A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are obese and weight loss should be achieved through physical activity and behavioral changes in nutrition.
· The type of carbohydrate to be selected in the diet in individuals with diabetes is also very important.
· Starch, etc. complex carbohydrates should be preferred for the individual with diabetes. These types of carbohydrates increase blood sugar more slowly because their digestion and absorption are slower.
· Honey, molasses, tea sugar, and similar sources raise and lower blood sugar much faster because it is easily digested and absorbed, so changes in blood balance are high and damage metabolism.
· Fruit peel, legumes, and whole-grain products contain high fiber. A high amount of pulp plays important role in blood sugar regulation.
· The amount of protein in the diet is also important, amino acids play a role in the release of insulin.
· Nutrition is very important for a healthy body in diabetes. The ability of foods to increase blood sugar is called the glycemic index, for example, while the glycemic index of honey and molasses is high, the bulgur with higher pulp content is lower. It is absolutely necessary to take advantage of foods with a low glycemic index in the diet.
Exercise affects the disease positively in people with diabetes. Regular exercise plays an important role in balancing blood sugar. Therefore, turning sports into a life philosophy in our lives will be very beneficial.